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2African Center of Excellence for Climate Change, Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture,22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire
3Laboratory of Zoology and Animal Biology, UFR (Faculty) of Biosciences,University Felix Houphouet-Boigny, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire
Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major constraint for banana cultivation worldwide. The control methods against this pest are mainly based on the use of chemical nematicides whose effects are harmful to the environment and human health. This study aims at assessing the nematicidal effect of plant extracts in order to control the populations of the main plant-parasitic nematodes found in banana tree plantations in Côte d’Ivoire. The effect of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica seed powder and the aqueous emulsion of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum were tested in on-farm by root application in a completely randomized Fischer block design from 2015 to 2016 over two cycles of industrial banana cultivation in the Abidjan area. The populations of Radopholus similis were reduced by 87.75% using the aqueous emulsion of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum. The aqueous extract and the Azadirachta indica seed powder caused 84.3% and 81.24% mortality respectively for the same nematode species. As for Pratylenchus coffeae, it had a reduction of 86.5% with the aqueous emulsion of Ocimum gratissimum and 86% with the aqueous extract of the Azadirachta indica powder. As for the Azadirachta indica seed powder and the chemical nematicide (Cadusafos 10%), the reduction rates were 80.06% and 79.8%, respectively. The results obtained suggest that the aqueous extract of the powder and the A. indica seed powder as well as the essential oil of O. gratissimum have the capacity to control plant-parasitic nematode populations.